Page created: 30th March 1997|
Last updated: 14th September 2011
The FAME is site devoted to systematic and scientific study of flags and coats of arms. Such symbols often bear strong political and other messages. Inclusion of those symbols here does not mean that the author support or approve the ideas they may stand for.
About the FAME
About the Author
Please, see on the HGZD site.
About these Pages
These pages are devoted to flags and coats of arms that were and are used in some countries of Central and Southeastern Europe in XIX and XX century. These pages are result of a systematic and scientific research of those symbols, using all to me available sources limited only with time and resources that I can devote to them.
The purpose of these pages is not to present all those, well known, flags and coat of arms of countries that are easily found in general literature and other Web pages. Therefore, on these pages you may find historical flags and coat of arms, flags of administrative divisions, political parties, unofficial flags and proposals and even some flags of "doubtful" authenticy that are to be found in sources or otherwise known in public.
I began with the flags and coats of arms that I was most familiar with - those of the countries in the region I live in. Until now the topics of this presentation covered to various extent over five countries in my neighbourhood, with different level of in-depth study. However, in some segments these pages are the first publication of the often obscure material and they became a kind of authority for local flags of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Since in this region the coat of arms are as a rule part of the flag design, or are at least used as basis for the design, it is not possible to study flags without looking into their corresponding coats of arms. Therefore, the coats of arms are virtually processed in equal level of details, even if that was not my first intention - that is the job for a herladists not a vexillologist. But, of course, vexillology is still a young study, related to heraldry and it is no doubt that the two shall stay interlinked for ever.
Of course, there are still many flags that are missing - these pages are always "under construction" and are constantly updated with new data, new information and findings. Many missing flags are missing either because it is not known if they are adopted as yet and what they look like, or because I miss firm information to be able to present a decent image. It is, as a rule, difficult to obtain information on details of the coats of arms that are part of design of many flags, and it is even more difficult to trace the primary sources - official gazettes and similar documents adopting flags and coats of arms or regulating their use.
If you have more information, or better if you have an image of any flag that you think it should be included here, I kindly ask you to contact me. Naturally, all corrections, proposals and other comments are welcome.
Finally, the flags can be presented in many ways: by description, by symbolic, by the story of their origin etc. but I decided to present them mainly with images. I tried to include as much as possible information on documents adopting and regulating the use of the flags and coats of arms. Wherever it was possible, I included information such as ratios, dates, short historical notes and flag usage symbols. According to the available data I tried to explain the reasons behind the symbolic, eventual legends or stories that explain why some design was chosen, and that sometimes represent the most interesting part of these pages - at least in my opinion. Again, I should stress that such information is not acquired easily, and I welcome any further input from you.
Ah, yes, what do I mean when I say "Modern Era"? It is quite a fuzzy term and quite relative also, but by it I count all those flags and coats of arms that are used after around AD 1848. The year that is otherwise quite remarkable in European history and also the year in which are born many of the modern national flags. But, of course, saying that does not mean that I shall ignore any older flag, especially if the inclusion of such is justified for reasons.
Disclaimer and Copyright
Even if the author gives his best to present the material on this pages as accurate as possible, he renounces any responsibility for damage, direct or indirect, that would be caused by inaccuracies or otherwise information from these pages.
The flags and the coats of arms can express certain political and/or other ideas. Displaying of flags and coats of arms on these pages does no mean that the author agrees or disagrees with such ideas.
The counties, cities and communities in the Republic of Croatia by their decision on adoption and use of the coats of arms and flags limit the use of these symbols only after obtaining an explicit written permission.
However, most of the units of local government and self-government by the same decisions explicitly allow the free use of the symbols in the educational and scientific purposes and in the artistic creation, under condition that such use does not offend the dignity and honour of the local unit.
The author of these pages considers that the depiction of the coats of arms and the flags here meets the conditions of free use in that sense.
Material presented on these pages can be used, if:
Notes on Orthography
I have tried my best to represent here the names of states and their subdivisions as accurate as possible. This was quite a nuisance when these pages were started back in 1996. Although the internet standards nowadays cover the issue, the update of the orthography is made gradually.
Although the author gives his best to present the same data in both languages, the basic version is considered the version in English.
If the data doesn't match, please, inform me about that.
The sources for each particular entry are given next to it, especially the legal sources I have consulted. Here is listed the general literature that I consulted.
- Jelena Borošak - Marijanović, Flags trough the centuries, Catalogue of Museum Collection, Flags and Flag Streamers, Hrvatski povijesni muzej, Zagreb, 1996
- Jelena Borošak - Marijanović, Zastave kroz stoljeća, Zbirka zastava i zastavnih vrpca HPM, Hrvatski povijesni muzej, Zagreb, 1996
- Peter Diem, Die Symbole Österreichs, Wien, 1995
- Josip Luetić, O državnoj zastavi Dubrovačke Republike, Zadar, 1967
- Marijan Grakalić, Hrvatski grb, Zagreb, 1990.
- Vladimir Isaić, Pomorski običaji i tradicije, Rijeka, 2001.
- Ottfried Neubecker, Heraldry - Sources, Symbols and Meaning, Twickenham, 1997
- Armand Noël du Payrat, ed., L'Album des Pavillions Nationaux et des marques Distinctives, Brest, 2000
- Pierre, ed., Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives des états et des principales organisations internationales, Brest, Recapitulative edition 1995.
- Nicole Smith, Flags of the World, London, 1995
- Whitney Smith, Flags Through the Ages and Across the World, McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, England, 1975.
- Whitney Smith, Zastave i grbovi svijeta, Zagreb, 1982, (prijevod djela Flags and arms across the world, 1980)
- Ankica Tuđman, ed., Hrvatsko ratno znakovlje, 2nd edition, Zagreb, 1994
- Bartol Zmajić, Heraldika, Zagreb, 1971, 1st edition; 1996, 2nd edition
- ***, Hrvatska enciklopedija, Zagreb, 1999 -
- ***, Atlas Jugoslavenskog leksikografskog zavoda, Zagreb, 1969
- ***, Mayers Konversations Lexikon, Leipzig and Wien, 1897
- Banderas, Spanish Vexillological Society, Spain
- Der Flaggenkurier, German Vexillological Society, Germany
- Flagmaster, Flag Institute, Chester, UK
- Grb i zastava, Hrvatsko grboslovno i zastavoslovno društvo, Croatia
- Nordisk Flaggkontakt, Nordic Vexillological Society, Norway-Sweden-Denmark-Finland-Island
- Makedonski herald, Macedonian Heraldic Society, Macedonia
- The National Geographic Magazine: Our Flag Number, (No.4/Vol.XXXII) October, 1917, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., USA
- Vexilla Italica, Italian Vexillological Society, Italy
I want to thank for the help in making of these pages to all the people that unselfishly provided information,
suggestions and designs of flags. Especially, I want to thank to, in no particular order:
- Giuseppe Bottasini, founder of the 'Flags of the World', Italy
- Armand du Payrat, Service Hydrographique et Océanographice de la Marine, France
- Jaume Ollé, Electronical Bulletin of Vexillology from Catalonia, Catalonia
- Mark Sensen, Flags of 19th and 20th centuries, the Netherlands
- Dirk Schövnberger, Germany
- Pascal Vagnat, France
- Friancois Velde, France
- Uroš Žižmund, Slovenia
- Pascal Gross, Switzerland
- Marcus Schmöger, Germany
- Tomislav Šipek, Croatia
- Tomislav Todorović, Serbia
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Copyright © 1996-2011 by Zeljko Heimer. All rights reserved.